INTRA-REGIONAL COOPERATION

APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)  Updated 25 Jan 2018
Initiated in January 1989 by Australia for more effective economic cooperation across the Asia-Pacific Region.
Members: Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong/China,
Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Phillipines,
Russia, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Thailand, United States, and Viet Nam.
Click
here for a Map of the region.
Cooperation focused on trade and economic issues – commitment to open trade, investment and economic
reform within the region for sustainable economic growth. Progressive reduction of tariffs and other trade
barriers.
Check Out: Leaders' Declarations issued at the end of yearly APEC Economic Leaders' Meetings.
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ACP (African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States)  Updated 25 Jan 2018
Created in 1975 with the signing of the Georgetown Agreement, establishing a partnership between the ACP
and the European Union.
Members: There are 79 member-states. Click
here for a list of members.
A
map is available on the official website of South Africa's International Relations and Cooperation.
Goals: To work together towards peace and stability, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and
increase competitiveness for gradual integration into the world economy, and to act as a unified political entity
in international forums.

ACS (Association of Caribbean States)  Updated 25 Jan 2018
Established in July 1994 in Colombia with the aim of promoting consultation, cooperation and concerted action
among all countries of the Caribbean region. As a Zone of Cooperation, it focuses on trade, transport,
sustainable tourism and natural disasters within the region.
Members: Antigua & Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica,
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Panama, St. Kitts Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago,    
and Venezuela. Associate members include Aruba, France, Netherland Antilles, and Turks and Caicos.

IBSA – India-Brazil-South Africa Trilateral  Updated 25 Jan 2018
Initiated in June 2003 with the first Foreign Affairs Ministers meeting in Brasilia, Brazil.
Followed three months later by the meeting of the Heads of State in New York, USA.
Goals: Among others, to develop South-South cooperation and work together at multilateral forums, such as
the United Nations (UN) and World Trade Organization (WTO), for the promotion of an alternative perspective
of world affairs.
REGIONAL TRADE BLOCKS, TARIFFS AND TRADE BARRIERS
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FOLLOW BLOG - THREE WORLDS ONE VISION : Rosaliene shares her experiences of living and
working in Guyana, Brazil and the USA.

TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement)  Updated 25 Jan 2018
Founded in 2006 as the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement,  known as the P4, with
Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore as its members.
More information
: Background and Negotiation and the Full Text of Agreement in HTML format.
Additional members to the multilateral Free Trade Agreement under negotiation, now known as the TPP,
include the United States (Feb 2008), Australia (Nov 2008), Peru (Nov 2008), Vietnam (Nov 2008), Malaysia
(Oct 2010), Mexico (Jun 2012), Canada (Jun 2012), and Japan (Mar 2013). Other nations that have expressed
interest in TPP membership comprise Philippines, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Click
here for a Map of the region.
Goals
: The TPP aims to extend beyond trading power among participating members to include a broader
economic integration across the Asia-Pacific region.
Population 811,234,635
: estimated total population of the 12-member TPP group, making it larger than the
European Union (
July 2015 estimates, CIA The World Factbook).
GDP
: 27.58 trillion (2015 estimates, CIA The World Factbook), larger than the European Union and 24.26 percent of
the world GDP.
For more information on the TPP: Public Citizen
Update: On 23 January 2017, President Trump signed an Executive Order to formally withdraw from the
TPP. Information about the TPP formerly available on the USTR website has been removed.
TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership)  Updated 25 Jan 2018
On 13 February 2013, the presidents of the United States, European Council, and European Commission
announced the launch of negotiations on a TTIP.
Goals: The TIPP aims to expand existing trade between the regions; advance trade and investment
liberalization; address regulatory and other non-tariff barriers.
Size of proposed trade zone: Together, the EU and the US account for 47% of the world’s gross domestic
product (GDP) and 30% of global trade flows. Together they would create the biggest free trade zone in the
world, with around USD2.7bn of goods and services being traded daily. Aggregate investment between the two
economies is in excess of USD3.7 trillion (
Tax-News, 15 February 2013).
For more information on the TTIP:

BRICS – Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa Updated 25 Jan 2018
Since Goldman Sachs first formulated the acronym “BRIC” in 2001 to highlight the growing economies of Brazil,
Russia, India, and China, the four countries initiated economic dialogue in 2006. With the inclusion of South
Africa in 2011, the emerging political-economical-diplomatic entity has become known as BRICS.
BRICS account for 43% of the world’s population, 26% of the world’s land mass, 30% of the world’s GDP, and
17% of world trade (BRICS India 2016).
The 9th BRICS Summit was held in Xiamen, China, on September 3-5, 2017.
Check Out: Xiamen Declaration
Learn More:
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CPTPP (Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership) Added 4 Apr 2018
On 8 March 2018, representatives of 11 countries met in Santiago, Chile, to sign the Comprehensive and
Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), creating a massive free trade bloc connecting 500 million
people and economies with a combined GDP of over $10 trillion.
Members: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and
Vietnam.
The CPTPP incorporates most of the
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) provisions but suspended 22
provisions the United States favored that other countries opposed and lowered the threshold for enactment so
the participation of the U.S. is not required, following the withdrawal of the U.S. in January 2017.
The CPTPP will enter into force 60 days after at least six (or 50%) of the signatories have notified the
Depositary (New Zealand) of the completion of ratification procedures. For subsequent parties that ratify the
agreement, the CPTPP will enter into force for that party 60 days after the date of its ratification.
Full Text of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP),
Released 21 February 2018.