THE AMERICAS - BEYOND NAFTA

FTAA (Free Trade Area of the Americas)
Talks began at the Summit of the Americas held in Miami, USA, on 11 December 1994.
Proposed agreement (an extension of the NAFTA Agreement): To eliminate or reduce trade barriers among
the 34 democratic nations in the Americas.
Countries involved in negotiations.
Impasse in the negotiations is due to conflicting needs of the more- and less-developed nations.  
(1) Developed nations, under the leadership of the USA, seek expanded trade in services and increased
intellectual property rights. (2) Less developed nations, led by Brazil, seek end to agricultural subsidies and
freer trade in agricultural goods.
    AGREEMENTS, TARIFFS, BARRIERS AND OTHER TRADE ISSUES

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(UNCTAD) – provides information on existing GSP schemes for the benefit of government officials, exporters,
and others.

Office of the United States Trade Representative – Trade Agreements.

SICE – The Foreign Trade Information System of the OAS (Organization of American States) – offers the
following world trade information:
  • Trade Agreements, classified by type and signatory country;
  • Trade Policies;
  • Trade Issues – anti-dumping, competition policy, dispute settlement, electronic commerce, intellectual
    property rights, investment, services, technical barriers to trade, and more;
  • Tariffs; and
  • Up-to-date trade news.

2017 National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers
Annual series, provided by the Office of the United States Trade Representative, that surveys significant
foreign barriers to U.S. exports. The report provides, where feasible, quantitative estimates of the impact of
these foreign practices on the value of U.S. exports. Information is also included on action taken to eliminate
barriers.
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DR-CAFTA (Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement)
Negotiations for CAFTA began in January 2003 between the USA and Central America. It was renamed DR-
CAFTA when the Dominican Republic, a Caribbean country, joined the negotiations. The agreement was signed
in May 2004.
Countries which signed the agreement include: Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, Nicaragua, and the United States.
Click
here for a map of the region.
Goals: Creation of a free trade block similar to NAFTA and a step forward towards the formation of the FTAA.
Check Out: For more information, check out the following site:

UNASUR/UNASUL (Union of South American Nations)
formerly known as SACN (South American Community of Nations)
Agreement signed in December 2004 by the presidents or their representatives of 12 South American nations.
Members include the following nations:
  • Andean Community – Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru;
  • Mercosur – Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela; and
  • Other Countries – Chile (associate member of both South American blocks), Guyana and Suriname (both
    members of CARICOM).
Note: French Guiana, the remaining South American country, is an Overseas Department of France and is
therefore a member of the European Union (EU).
The main goal of this agreement is to unite MECROSUR and the Andean Community as well as Chile, Guyana
and Suriname to form a community similar to the European Union (EU) with a common currency, parliament and
passport. The union is projected for completion by 2019.
REGIONAL TRADE BLOCKS, TARIFFS AND TRADE BARRIERS
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CELAC (Community of Latin American and Caribbean States)
An intra-regional block officially inaugurated on 3 December 2011 in Caracas, Venezuela.
It comprises
33 countries, extending from Mexico in North America, through Central America, the Caribbean
(including Cuba) and to the southern tail of South America (excluding French Guiana).
  • Combined population is nearly 600 million.
  • Combined GDP about US$6 trillion.
The main aim is to coordinate a response to safeguard the region’s growing economies from the global financial
crisis.

ALBA-TCP (Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America - Peoples' Trade Treaty)
Conceived by the late Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, following his objections to the proposals of the FTAA.
In December 2004, Venezuela and Cuba established the Alliance as an integration platform for countries of Latin
America and the Caribbean. It is a political, economic, and social alliance that goes beyond trade.
Members comprise the following nation states with their membership date: Antigua & Barbuda (2009), Bolivia
(2006), Cuba (2004), Dominica (2008), Ecuador (2009), Grenada (2014), Nicaragua (2007), Saint Kitts & Nevis
(2014), Saint Lucia (2013), Saint Vincent & The Grenadines (2009), and Venezuela (2004). Suriname and Haiti
have indicated interest in becoming members.